Monday, April 7, 2014

Paper II Dec UGC NET 2013 First 10 questions analysis and detailed study.

1. Mass media essentially operate in
(A) Limited sphere
(B) Parallel sphere
(C) Public sphere
(D) Conventional sphere

Answer: - C

Mass media operate in public sphere as it is wide and have unlimited number of viewers. So it cannot work in limited sphere and so not in either parallel sphere or conventional sphere ( it cannot adhere to some standards). So option C is correct.

2. When codes govern signs, and when assembled together, they become
(A) Texts
(B) Paradigms
(C) Contexts
(D) Symbol

Answer: - A

We are familiar with sign language and we know when some signs are clubbed together they form a text. Hence option A is correct.

3. The addressability of mass communication is altered by
(A) the digital media
(B) the folk media
(C) the personality-oriented media
(D) the non-real time media

Answer:- A

Addressability is the ability of a digital device to individually respond to a message sent to many similar devices. For example mobile phones, set top boxes etc. Tumhare computer or laptop ka ek special MAC address hota hai,ise trah  mobile phone ka ek IMEI hota hai. So from these your device is addressed. So it is clear that it can only be altered through Digital Media as it is not possible in case of folk media, personally oriented media or non- real time media.
4. Transferring thoughts, ideas and messages into verbal and non-verbal signs is referred to as
(A) Channelization
(B) Mediation
(C) Encoding
(D) Decoding

Answer:- C
As we know the 1st thing done in any communication is to encode the message properly in order to send it. Such as a computer encode our messages in binary and then sent to his processor. Aise he hum karte hain jab hum apne vicharon, baton ko kise ko bol kar ya likh kar btate hain to hum un baton ko encode kar rahe hote hain. So option C is correct.

5. The utilization of a personal space and physical environment for communication is called
(A) Chronemics
(B) Proxemics
(C) Kinesics
(D) Paralanguage

Answer:- B

According to me it is a very tough question as most of us are not aware of these terms. Let first understand all these terms.
Chronemics is the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication. Across cultures, time perception plays a large role in the nonverbal communication process. Time perceptions include punctuality, willingness to wait and interactions. The use of time can affect lifestyle, daily agendas, speed of speech, movements and how long people are willing to listen.
Kinesics is the interpretation of body motion communication such as facial expressions and gestures — that is, nonverbal behavior related to movement of any part of the body or the body as a whole. The equivalent popular culture term is body language.
Paralanguage is a component of meta-communication that may modify or nuance meaning, or convey emotion, such as prosody, pitch, volume, intonation etc. It is sometimes defined as relating to nonphonemic properties only. Paralanguage may be expressed consciously or unconsciously.
Paralanguage is vocal features that accompany speech and contribute to communication but are not generally considered to be part of language system, as vocal quality, loudness, and tempo: sometimes also including facial expressions and gestures.
Now our answer:-
Proxemics is a subcategory of the study of nonverbal communication along with haptics (touch), kinesics (body movement), vocalics (paralanguage), and chronemics (structure of time). Proxemics can be defined as "the interrelated observations and theories of man's use of space as a specialized elaboration of culture”.
The study of the nature, degree, and effect of the spatial separation individuals naturally maintain (as in various social and interpersonal situations) and of how this separation relates to environmental and cultural factors.

6. Generally, referential readings are
(A) Normal
(B) Researched
(C) Emotional
(D) Prohibitive

Answer:-  C

  The definition of referential reading is opposite to that of the concept of critical reading. There are two types of framing, the referential frames and the critical frames. According to Jakobson’s understanding, the referential frames connect the text (TV programs, fictions, music, etc) and the readers’ real life. Readers viewed the characters in the text as real persons similar to their actual life. Hence these readings are connected with the emotional aspect of the viewer.  So we can conclude that Option C is correct.

7. The first chairman of the Press Council of India was
(A) Justice Rajagopala Iyenger
(B) Justice P.B. Sawant
(C) Justice Jeevan Reddy
(D) Justice J.R. Mudholkar

Answer:- D

This question is direct and you can score easily in these questions by cramming names and dates. One important thing about this chairman is that normally press council is headed by a retired judge of the Supreme Court of India but only exception is Justice J.R. Mudholkar who was a sitting judge of SC in 1968.

8. Organisational communication is concerned with the flow of messages within a network of interdependent
(A) Relationships
(B) Performances
(C) Obstacles
(D) Biases

Answer:- A

Goldhaber (1993, p. 14) defines organizational communication as “the process
of creating and exchanging messages within a network of interdependent relationships to cope
with environmental uncertainty.” So from this definition option A is correct.

9. The concept of Flak was constructed by
(A) John Fiske
(B) E. Durkheim
(C) Noam Chomsky
(D) Leon Festinger

Answer:- C

In order to understand FLAK we have to understand this.
The propaganda model is a conceptual model in political economy advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that states how propaganda, including systemic biases, function in mass media. The model seeks to explain how populations are manipulated and how consent for economic, social and political policies is "manufactured" in the public mind due to this propaganda. The theory posits that the way in which news is structured (through advertising, media ownership, government sourcing and others) creates an inherent conflict of interest which acts as propaganda for undemocratic forces
The theory postulates five general classes of "filters" that determine the type of news that is presented in news media. These five classes are:
1.     Ownership of the medium
2.     Medium's funding sources
3.     Sourcing
4.     Flak
5.     Anti-communism and fear ideology

The fourth filter is 'flak', described by Herman and Chomsky as 'negative responses to a media statement or [TV or radio] program. It may take the form of letters, telegrams, phone calls, petitions, lawsuits, speeches and Bills before Congress and other modes of complaint, threat and punitive action'. Business organizations regularly come together to form flak machines. An example is the US-based Global Climate Coalition (GCC) - comprising fossil fuel and automobile companies such as Exxon, Texaco and Ford. The GCC was started up by Burson-Marsteller, one of the world's largest public relations companies, to attack the credibility of climate scientists and 'scare stories' about global warming.
For Chomsky and Herman "flak" refers to negative responses to a media statement or program. The term "flak" has been used to describe what Chomsky and Herman see as efforts to discredit organizations or individuals who disagree with or cast doubt on the prevailing assumptions which Chomsky and Herman view as favorable to established power (e.g., "The Establishment"). Unlike the first three "filtering" mechanisms — which are derived from analysis of market mechanisms — flak is characterized by concerted efforts to manage public information.

10. Sardar K.M. Panickar was associated with
(A) The Times of India
(B) The Pioneer
(C) The Hindustan Times
(D) The Tribune

Answer:- C

Again a direct question.

Sardar Kavalam Madhava Panikkar (or K. M. Panikkar) (June 3, 1895 – December 10, 1963) was an Indian scholar, journalist, historian, administrator and diplomat .He worked as editor of Hindustan Times in 1925.Hence option C is correct.


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