Saturday, April 12, 2014

UGC NET JRF Dec. 2013 Paper II question 21-36 Analysis

21. The process of examining every member of a specified population is called
(A) Probability
(B) Partiality
(C) Census
(D) Non-probability

 Answer:- C

It is a simple question. A survey that measures the entire target population is called a census.

22. Former President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was associated with
(A) Searchlight
(B) Satyagraha
(C) Sentinel
(D) Leader

Answer:-  A

 In 1918 Dr. Rajendra Prasad published the famous English news paper “ Searchlight”.
23. Cutlip, Bernays, Ivy Lee are associated with
(A) Radio and T.V. Journalism
(B) Public Relations and Corporate Communication
(C) Film production and new media
(D) Print Journalism

Answer:- B

Scott Munson Cutlip (July 15, 1915 in Buckhannon, West Virginia - August 18, 2000 in Madison, Wisconsin) was a pioneer in public relations education.
Edward Louis Bernays (November 22, 1891 − March 9, 1995) was an Austrian-American pioneer in the field of public relations and propaganda, referred to in his obituary as "the father of public relations".
Ivy Ledbetter Lee (July 16, 1877 – November 9, 1934) is considered by some to be the founder of modern public relations

24. In terms of public awareness, news has the status of
(A) Dominant discourse
(B) Conflict value
(C) Unintended exchange
(D) Limited judgement

Answer:- A

In Hindi dominant discourse is प्रमुख प्रवचन ya प्रभावशाली संवाद Since we can see news doesn’t has the status of limited judgement, unintended exchange and conflict value so we have only option A left.logon ko aware karne ke mamle me khabron ko pramukh prawachan mana jata hai jis se logon me jagrukta failti hai. Or logon ko aware krne ke mamle me khabren hamesha prabhavshali hoti hain.

25. The film, Lawrence of Arabia , belongs to the genre of
(A) Crime
(B) Detective
(C) Epic
(D) Comedy

Answer:-  C
Lawrence of Arabia is a 1962 British epic adventure drama film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence. It was directed by David Leanand produced by Sam Spiegel through his British company, Horizon Pictures, with the screenplay by Robert Bolt and Michael Wilson. The film stars Peter O'Toole in the title role.
Ab swal ye hai ki aakhir yeh movie he kyo poochi gyi?

Because it is widely considered as one of the greatest and most influential films in the history of cinema.
The film was nominated for ten Academy Awards and won seven in total including Best Director, Best Sound Editing, and Best Picture.
The film depicts Lawrence's experiences in Arabia during World War I, in particular his attacks on Aqaba and Damascus and his involvement in the Arab National Council. Its themes include Lawrence's emotional struggles with the personal violence inherent in war, his own identity, and his divided allegiance between his native Britain and its army and his new found comrades within the Arabian Desert tribes.

26. Live Television and radio that need the presence of audience are identified as
(A) Transmission media
(B) Signal media
(C) Asynchronous media
(D) Synchronous media

Answer:-  D

First we need to know what does synchronous means?
 It means occurring at the same time; coinciding in time; contemporaneous; simultaneous.
Now from above diagram you can conclude what Synchronous means.

Synchronous tools enable real-time communication and collaboration in a "same time-different place" mode. These tools allow people to connect at a single point in time, at the same time. Synchronous tools possess the advantage of being able to engage people instantly and at the same point in time. So we can conclude from above explanation that Live Television and radio that need the presence of audience are identified as Synchronous Media.

27. In frequency modulation
(A) Frequency of carrier wave varies according to the frequency of signal.
(B) Frequency of carrier wave varies according to the amplitude of the signal.
(C) Frequency of signal varies according to the amplitude of carrier wave.
(D) Frequency of signal varies according to the frequency of carrier wave.

Answer:- B

We will understand both AM and FM then we will be able to understand this question.

AM (or Amplitude Modulation) and FM (or Frequency Modulation) are ways of broadcasting radio signals. Both transmit the information in the form of electromagnetic waves. AM works by modulating (varying) the amplitude of the signal or carrier transmitted according to the information being sent, while the frequency remains constant. This differs from FM technology in which information (sound) is encoded by varying the frequency of the wave and the amplitude is kept constant. Hence we can conclude option B from this statement.

Now another important thing is to understand the comparison between FM and AM.

                                              AM                                                                FM
AM method of audio transmission was first successfully carried out in the mid 1870s.
FM radio was developed in the United states mainly by Edwin Armstrong in the 1930s.
Modulating differences
In AM, a radio wave known as the "carrier" or "carrier wave" is modulated in amplitude by the signal that is to be transmitted.
In FM, a radio wave known as the "carrier" or "carrier wave" is modulated in frequency by the signal that is to be transmitted.
It is used in both analog and digital communication and telemetry.
It is used in both analog and digital communication and telemetry.
Pros and cons
AM has poorer sound quality compared to FM, but is cheaper and can be transmitted over long distances. It has a smaller bandwidth so it can have more stations available in any frequency range.
FM is less prone to interference than AM. However, FM signals are impacted by physical barriers. FM has greater sound quality due to higher bandwidth.
Stands for
AM stands for Amplitude Modulation
FM stands for Frequency Modulation
AM radio ranges from 535 to 1705 kilohertz (OR) Up to 1200 Bits per second
FM radio ranges in a higher spectrum from 88 to 108 megahertz. (OR) 1200 to 2400 bits per second
Bandwidth Requirements
Twice the highest modulating frequency. In AM radio broadcasting, the modulating signal has bandwidth of 15kHz, and hence the bandwidth of an amplitude-modulated signal is 30kHz
Twice the sum of the modulating signal frequency and the frequency deviation. If the frequency deviation is 75kHz and the modulating signal frequency is 15kHz, the bandwidth required is 180kHz
Zero crossing in modulated signal
not equidistant
transmitter and receiver are simple but in case of SSBSC AM carrier synchronization is needed
transmitter and receiver are more complex as variation of modulating signal has to converted and detected from corresponding variation in frequencies.(i.e. voltage to frequency and frequency to voltage conversion has to be done) which are quite complex
AM is more susceptible to noise because noise affects amplitude, which is where information is "stored" in an AM signal.
FM is less susceptible to noise because information in an FM signal is transmitted through varying the frequency, and not the amplitude.

28. A psychographic characteristic of film audience is
(A) Income
(B) Age
(C) Gender
(D) Need for status

Answer:- D

Psychographics is the study of personality, values, attitudes, interests, and lifestyles.

Demographics are the quantifiable statistics of a given population. Commonly examined demographics include gender, age, ethnicity, knowledge of languages, disabilities, mobility, home ownership, employment status, and even location.

So from above definition t is clear that income, age and gender are demographic characteristics so only option D left which is a psychographic characteristic.

29. The term ‘spin doctors’ is used in a negative sense to refer to
(A) News reporters
(B) Legal counsels
(C) Advertisers
(D) PR Professionals

Answer:-  D

In public relations, spin is a form of propaganda, achieved through providing an interpretation of an event or campaign to persuade public opinion in favor or against a certain organization or public figure. While traditional public relations may also rely on creative presentation of the facts, "spin" often implies disingenuous, deceptive and/or highly manipulative tactics. Politicians are often accused by their opponents of claiming to be honest and seek the truth while using spin tactics to manipulate public opinion. Because of the frequent association between spin and press conferences (especially government press conferences), the room in which these take place is sometimes described as a spin room. A group of people who develop spin may be referred to as "spin doctors" who engage in "spin doctoring" for the person or group that hired them.

Edward Bernays has been called the "Father of Spin". As Larry Tye describes in his book The Father of Spin: Edward L. Bernays and The Birth of Public Relations, Bernays was able to help tobacco and alcohol companies use techniques to make certain behaviors more socially acceptable in the 20th-century United States.

30. If a publication is half the size of a broadsheet, it is called
(A) Tabloid
(B) Digest
(C) Single dummy
(D) Double dummy

Answer:- A

A tabloid is defined as "roughly 17 by 11 inches (432 by 279 mm)" and commonly "half the size of a broadsheet."

A tabloid is a newspaper with compact page size smaller than broadsheet, although there is no standard for the precise dimensions of the tabloid newspaper format. The term tabloid journalism, along with the use of large pictures, tends to emphasize topics such as sensational crime stories, astrology, celebrity gossip and television. However, some respected newspapers, such as The Independent and The Times, are in tabloid format, and this size is used in the United Kingdom by nearly all local newspapers. There, its page dimensions are roughly 430 mm × 280 mm (16.9 in × 11.0 in).

31. Assertion (A) : The Press in India has the liability to pay nondiscriminatory taxes.

Reason (R) : Under the Indian constitution, the press is no different from ordinary citizens.

(A) Both (A) and (R) are true.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Answer:- A

Some people say these questions are very difficult. But these questions are easy but tricky and you have to properly focus on both statements.
In case of above statements we know press in India is not exempted from taxes and it has to pay the same tax as other organizations does. So first statement is correct. Now 2nd statement is also correct as press has no special status. It is just like ordinary citizens.  So it has to pay taxes in same way people do.

32. Assertion (A) : The government cannot directly restrict one freedom by permitting another freedom.
Reason (R) : Clause (1) of Article 19 of the Indian Constitution provides equal opportunity for every type of freedom.

(A) Both (A) and (R) are true.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but
(R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Answer:-  D

The word cannot in the Assertion make the statement difficult. So students confuse and wrongly answer it. Now let’s see what Assertion means. The government cannot directly restrict one freedom by permitting another freedom. But according to the constitution Government can restrict one freedom and permit other freedoms. For example:- We have the right  to assemble peacefully and without arms. But when there is curfew this freedom is restricted but you have other freedom available to you such as freedom of speech and expression. Also constitution states reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub-clause (right to assemble). So it is clear that Assertion is wrong.
But the (R) is true as constitution confers that Clause (1) of Article 19 of the Indian Constitution provides equal opportunity for every type of freedom. Hence option D is correct.

33. Assertion (A) : Television and Internet have become a major source of news these days for daily newspapers.
Reason (R) : Since news agency services have become less dependable due to global recession.

(A) Both (A) and (R) are true.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but
(R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Answer:- C

It is a general question and if you are aware about what is happening around your world then you can easily answer it. Assertion is right as today television and Internet have become a major source of news these days for daily newspapers. But the reason for this (R) is incorrect as it is not because agency services have become less dependable due to global recession but because of the fastness of Internet and uprising 24 X 7 television networks. So (R) is wrong. Hence option C is correct.

34. Assertion (A) : Today the focus of media is more on hype and entertainment than information and education.
Reason (R) : Because they aim at massive audience consisting of common denominators who have low level tastes and preferences.

(A) Both (A) and (R) are true.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but
(R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Answer:- C

Assertion is right if we consider today’s media. But the reason (R) is incorrect as the audience is variably different with different tastes and demographics. So the reason why media has changed his focus is not because of the audience having low level tastes and preferences but some other reasons such as to sustain or increase viewership or to earn profits.

35. Assertion (A) : Researchers who opt for secondary analysis do not have limitations in the types of hypothesis or research questions which are to be investigated.
Reason (R) : For them, data already exists and it is difficult to get more information.

(A) Both (A) and (R) are true.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are true, but
(R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

Answer:- D

You have to understand exploratory research first.

Exploratory research of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. It often occurs before we know enough to make conceptual distinctions or posit an explanatory relationship. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects.
Exploratory research often relies on secondary research or secondary analysis such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies. The Internet allows for research methods that are more interactive in nature.
When the purpose of research is to gain familiarity with a phenomenon or acquire new insight into it in order to formulate a more precise problem or develop hypothesis, the exploratory studies (also known as formulative research) come in handy. If the theory happens to be too general or too specific, a hypothesis cannot to be formulated. Therefore a need for an exploratory research is felt to gain experience that will be helpful in formulative relevant hypothesis for more definite investigation.

Hence Assertion is wrong.

But the Reason (R) is correct as for them data already exists because they have already gathered much data in primary stage and therefore it is difficult to get more information.

36. Identify the correct sequence of marketing approach in relation to advertising and public relations.

(A) Product knowledge, prospecting, approach decision, establishing needs
(B) Establishing needs, product knowledge, approach decision, prospecting
(C) Prospecting, establishing needs, approach decision, product knowledge.
(D) Approach decision, prospecting, product knowledge, establishing needs.

Answer:- A

These are stepwise.

1. Firstly you should have the product knowledge. What you want to sell? What your product is?
An understanding of a good or service that might include having acquired information about its application, function, features, use and support requirements. A business sales representative is an example of an individual that is typically expected to acquire considerable product knowledge about the goods and services that they are responsible for selling to consumers.

2. Then is prospecting which means the search for potential customers or buyers. You have to search customers for your product in order to sell.

3. Then the decision to approach to the customer in order to demonstrate your product and sell it to him/her.

4. Then the final step is establishing needs. The organization that can understand why customers make decisions such as such as who buys, what they buy and how they buy will, by catering more closely for customers satisfaction and needs, become potentially more successful.


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