Tuesday, May 3, 2016

The Evolution of Mass Communication ( Short notes) Part II (Final)

New Media

· From Colossus to ENIAC, to Apple, computers & the Internet pivotal in all changes

· Blogs have changed society, particularly politics.

· eBay & Craigslist revolutionized retailing.

· Facebook, MySpace & Twitter, Google, YouTube, Yahoo. . .


· Coined in 1997, describes web logs: daily postings with content personally posted on narrow topics, often watchdogs & self-proclaimed experts

· In 1999, a few companies began offering blog software; by 2002, Pyra Labs claimed 970,000 users

· Gone from obscure fad to a genuine alternative to mainstream news outlets

· Strom Thurmond’s 100th birthday party marked the turning point; Trent Lott complimented Thurmond’s segregationist party involvement in his run for presidency in 1948; Lott’s comments virtually ignored by mainstream press; blogs kept it alive; 4 days later, Lott apologized; 2 weeks later, Lott was out as Senate Majority Leader

· CBS’s Dan Rather (story on George W. Bush’s military stint), presidential candidate John Kerry (“Swiftboat” incident) helped cement the future importance of blogs eBay

· Online selling site begun by Omidyar in 1995

· Originally called AuctionWeb; 1st sold a broken laser pointer for $14.83

· Bought PayPal in 2002; now have a 25% stake in Craigslist


· Begun by Craig Newmark as e-mail list for friends; later, job & apartment listings added; now has everything!

· Most postings free; expenses covered through job postings; 1 million jobs posted each month; now more than 50 million users

· Negative press because of “Erotic Services” section that had been a well kept secret (now called “Adult Services”); allegedly, Philip Markoff, a Boston med student, met victims using the site; in April, 2009, Julissa Brisman killed, Markoff charged; on 8/15/10, what would have been the 1st anniversary had he gotten married, Markoff found dead in his cell, a suicide; his death has renewed interest in the site that has now been removed with “Censored” on the site instead


· Originally called “thefacebook.com”; begun by Harvard sophomore Zuckerberg in his dorm room as a hobby

· Later extended to Stanford & Yale

· Forbes called him “the youngest billionaire on earth & possibly the youngest self-made billionaire ever” (2008)


· Begun by Greenspan, DeWolfe & Anderson in ’03; #1 social networking website in ‘06
· In ’07:

o Approximately 180 million MySpace.com accounts in ’07
o Typical user has 278 “online friends”
o Teens spend an average of 15 hours per week on site

· Bought by News Corporation in ’05; looked like a wise decision; site steadily lost its stature over years

· New team, different logo (no longer the “place for friends”), and a smaller workforce may help site bounce back


· Founded by Dorsey, Stone & Williams in ’06; users limited to only 140 characters; messages known as “tweets”

· Postings answer the question, “What are you doing?”

· Growing fast, thanks in large part to the celebrities that now have accounts Google

· Founded by computer science grad students Page & Brin at Stanford in 1998

· Wanted to find a way to retrieve information from the web; began the search engine BackRub that later became Google (named for the number represented by the number 1 with 100 zeros behind it)

· In ‘98, Google opened its office in Menlo Park, CA; so powerful, it now owns YouTube ($1.65 billion)


· Founded by Hurley, Chen & Karim in 2005; now the world’s most popular online video sharing site (people watching hundreds of thousands videos daily)

· President Obama one of the 1st politicians to take advantage; his info watched for 14.5 million hours

· Average viewer watches 15 minutes a day; would take two centuries to watch all of the videos

· Gets two million views a day, double the number of viewers watching network television in primetime, combined

· 70% of traffic comes from outside the U.S.


· Begun in ‘94 by two Stanford electrical engineering Ph.D. candidates, Filo & Yang; originally begun as “David & Jerry’s Guide to the World Wide Web”

· “Yahoo” stands for “Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle,” though founders say definition sold the name

· Leading global Internet, commerce and media company offering services to more than 345 million each month worldwide


· Now allows access to all types of media products whenever desired.

· Hulu is the site offered by News Corporation & General Electric; allows viewing of Fox, NBC & other network programs

· TV.com is CBS’s version of Hulu offering CBS programs

· ABC programming available on the network’s website & iTunes

Concentration of Ownership

· More media companies are owned by fewer & fewer people.

· Should encourage the widest possible dissemination from diverse sources

· Marketplace of ideas shrink; new & independent voices are stifled.

· Osama v. O.J., Whitewater, Princess Di; embassy bombings v. Lewinsky; all focus on insignificant issues instead of pressing concerns.

Top Powerful Media Corporations (2008)

· Time Warner
· The Disney Company
· News Corporation
· General Electric/NBC Universal
· Viacom

Ted Turner & Warner Brothers Merge; Time Warner Results (#1)

· Turner already owned:
        o CNN & Headline News
        o MGM/United Artist pre-1986 libraries (TNT)
        o Hanna-Barbera Productions (Cartoon Network)
        o WTBS

· Turner merged w/Time Inc.; Warner Brothers merged also to become Time Warner

· Time Warner owns: CW (50%), Warner Brothers, Hanna-Barbera, HBO, Cinemax, CNN, Headline News, TNT, Turner Classic Movies, TBS, Cartoon Network, AOL, Time, Sports Illustrated, People, Fortune, Atlanta Braves, New Line Cinema, Cartoon Network, DC Comics

The Disney Company (#2)

· Disney Company owns: ABC, Pixar, Disney Studios, Buena Vista, Touchstone, Miramax, ESPN, Disney Channel, ABC Family, Toon Disney, SoapNet, Classic Sports Network, pieces of Lifetime, E! (portion of), A&E, History Channel, Disneyland, Disneyworld, ESPN magazine, 62 radio stations

· Previous animated hits: Beauty and the Beast, Lion King (pen & ink animation)

· More recent hits: Pirates, Freaky Friday, National Treasure

· Disappointments: The Alamo ($100 million), King Arthur, Around the World in 80 Days

· 2001-2002, tried Who Wants to Be a Millionaire 4 times a week; rebounded with Desperate Housewives, Lost, & Grey’s Anatomy

· Had the opportunity to work with Pixar

Pixar Animation

· As of January, 2006, had won 20 Academy Awards (2007’s Ratatouille : most nominated animated film)

· Had a previous deal with Disney, beginning in 1991 with Toy Story (1995); shared box office receipts & licensing revenues; Disney retained the right to make sequels to movies such as Monsters Inc.

· Hits: Toy Story, Toy Story 2, A Bug’s Life, Monsters Inc, Finding Nemo, The Incredibles, Cars (all digital animation)

· Steve Jobs, Apple chief executive, also owns ½+ of Pixar; talks of a deal w/Disney broke down when Michael Eisner was CEO

· Cars was to be their last joint effort; Disney’s new CEO, Robert Iger, worked well with Jobs; agreed to be a major partner w/iTunes, releasing two ABC hits to Video iPod.

· ABC’s release of popular programs helps cement the success of Video iPods.

· New relationship helped hasten the merger; now Jobs is the largest Disney shareholder

Power of Steve Jobs

· Named by Fortune magazine as 2007’s most powerful person in business; founded Apple Inc. in 1977; the Apple II began the PC era

· Gave us “desktop publishing,” the laser printer, & pioneered personal computer networks

· Bankrolled Pixar, a brand new business model for creating computer-animated feature films; Jobs bought the Pixar technology from George Lucas

· Left Apple in 1985, returned in late 1996; changed consumer electronics with the iPod

· Persuaded the music industry, the television networks, and Hollywood to distribute their content with iTunes Music Store; opened successful Apple Stores (retail); ushered Apple’s entry into cell phone business (iPhone)

· So the five industries that Jobs has influenced:

       o Computers
       o Hollywood
       o Music
       o Retail
       o Wireless phones

· According to Fortune, “no one has more influence over a broader swath of business” than Jobs; he figured out a reason & a way for people to pay for media

Apple Statistics

· Apple’s computer division had a record 2008, selling 9.7 million Macs (twice the growth of industry average); as of 2009, Apple has sold 6 billion songs in 6 years to 75 million people.

· The iPhone, the 1st true mobile computer, is generating billions

· Apple released the iPad (already successful)

News Corporation (#3) & Rupert Murdoch

· News Corp owns: Fox, 34 O & Os, My Network TV, 20th Century Fox, FX, Fox News Channel, Fox Movie Channel, Fox Sports, The SPEED Channel, National Geographic Channel, Madison Square Garden Network, Newspapers, satellite TV, HarperCollins, MySpace.com, Wall Street Journal

· Chairman & CEO News Corp is Rupert Murdoch; Fortune named him the #2 most powerful person in business

· Career began in 1953 when he inherited control of 2 Australian newspapers; expanded to Britain in the 1960s, the U.S. in the 1970s, and Asia in the 1990s; in Britain, he owns the biggest tabloid, the Sun; in the U.S., the New York Post, Fox News Network, 20th Century Fox, etc.

· His purchase of MySpace.com & Dow Jones, the parent company of the Wall Street Journal, as well as the recent launch of the Fox Business Network, position him as a global-spanning financial news powerhouse.

· “At 76, Murdoch appears to be at the height of his power” (Fortune, CNNMoney.com)

GE/NBC Universal & Comcast (#4)

· NBC Universal owns: NBC, Telemundo, part of PAX, 14 NBC O & Os, 15 Telemundo O & Os, NBC Universal Studios, MSNBC, CNBC, Bravo, Trio, USA, Sci-Fi, 5 theme parks

· Comcast has purchased NBC Universal (NBCU); presently, Comcast is the largest multiple system operator (MSO), meaning it owns multiple cable operations across the country (23.8 million customers)

· Comcast provides high-speed Internet service to 15.7 million; voice service to 7.4 million; owns the Golf Channel and portion of E!; Philadelphia Flyers (hockey), 76ers & their 2 arenas; now owns majority NBCU (after the sale is approved by the government)

Things to Watch When Comcast Takes Over

· Jeff Zucker’s fate: NBCU chairman who grew the cable side

· Leno’s fate: will they embrace him?

· Olympics: will they bid for the next or leave it to Disney?

· NBCU name: will likely go away

· Hulu: network programming likely free; cable likely will be a pay model (has already begun pay model)

Viacom (#5)

· Viacom owns: CBS, CW (50% ownership with Time Warner), 16 CBS O & Os, 18 UPN O & Os, 5 others, Paramount Studios, CBS Productions, King World Productions, Showtime, Spike TV, MTV, MTV2, Noggin, VH-1, Nickelodeon, BET, Comedy Central, TV Land, CMT, Flix, Sundance Channel, Blockbuster, Simon & Schuster, Infinity (184 radio stations)

Extent of Media’s Reach in USA

· 37 million people in the U.S. will tune in to a primetime TV show on a typical Sunday night

· 98% of all homes have a TV set

· 91% have a VCRs & DVDs

· TV sets are on more than 8 hours a day in a typical U.S. homes

· 2/3 of all U.S. adults will read a newspaper each day

· 2/3 will listen to radio for some part of every day

· Internet population exceeds 938 million people

· 71 million Americans use e-mail every day

· 66% of the entire U.S. population regularly uses the Internet; 90% of teens, 12 to 17

· Americans spent more than $8.8 billion buying 1.4 billion movie tickets (’05) The Economy

· Not just individuals harmed by bad economy; fewer people working means fewer buying; fewer buying means fewer advertisers; less advertising, less money for media

· One in every 5 journalists who worked in 2001 likely gone.

· There will always be a need for talented, eager & passionate media employees.